Historical Context

Historically, the Tulsa case of book censorship happens in a time with conservative backlash. This is demonstrated through the actions and legislation nationally, in the state of Oklahoma and in the city of Tulsa.
Federal United States
In 1960, the United States was in the midst of the Civil Rights Movement. While the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is the most famous for creating equality in the workplace, there were acts beforehand which are not as popular for attempting to create equality. One such act was the Civil Rights Act of 1960.
The Civil Rights Act of 1960 was signed into action by President Eisenhower. This act was met with less-than enthusiasm as it was previously porposed in a stronger form only to have the reative Souther Senators pull out the practical portions and make the legislation nearly harmless. Eisenhower is seen as passing the problem off to his successor, Kennedy, by signing the bill in solidarity as a last-ditch effort to show sympathy to the oppressed.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is more well-known for good reason. It is the one which enacted public integration, including in busnesses and employment. The following year, the Voting Rights Act was passed to end descrimination in the polling place.
Oklahoma State
While Oklahoma began life as an incredibly liberal state, the 1960s finds the state flipped and following more conservative values. This was not without its corruption.
In contrast to the national population growth of 65.6 percent, Oklahoma’s population only expanded by 6.8 percent by 1960. They also were unable to create more jobs outside of agriculture. Income rose to 85 percent of the national average, giving hope Oklahoma could become one of the more diversified and well-paid states.
The 1960s saw rise to the view of Oklahoma scandals. While they had gone on for some time, it was in this time they were visible. Three state Supreme Court justices were removed in the decade. A former Speaker of the House was jailed for failure to report income.
City of Tulsa
In 1921, the Tulsa Race Riots gave the city a name in history for racial intolerance. The population boomed after World War II, growing by about 250,000 residents in twenty years. 1954 saw the establishment of Edison Preperatory High School, where Catcher in the Rye was challenged in 1960.


Carl E. Gregory, “Tulsa ,” The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, www.okhistory.org (accessed April 07, 2018)

C N Trueman “The 1960 Civil Rights Act,” The History Learning Site, historylearningsite.co.uk (accessed April 07, 2018)

Harry Holloway, “Scandals, Political,” The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, www.okhistory.org (accessed April 07, 2018)

History.com Staff, “Civil Rights Act of 1964,” www.history.com (accessed April 07, 2018)

Larkin Warner, “Oklahoma Economy ,” The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, www.okhistory.org (accessed April 07, 2018)

William Sturkey, “The Hidden History of the Civil Rights Act of 1960,” Black Perspectives, www.aaihs.org (accessed April 07, 2018)